Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) is symptoms of a spinal cord injury (SCI) with no evidence of injury to the spinal column on. The misapplication of the term spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) in adults. J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; – 1 Mar Pang and Wilberger1 defined the term spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) in as “objective signs of.

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Sciwofa overt signs of spinal trauma, such as fractures and dislocations, are absent in SCIWORA, nonsurgical strategies, including immobilization and corticosteroid therapy, are the mainstay of treatment. This is an open access article.

Published online Dec 8. A sagittal T2-weighted spin-echo MR image of the cervical spine in a year-old male patient. Dickman et al, 6 Eleraky and associates, 16 and Hadley et al 10 described no child having a latent period of neurological normalcy following injury.

SCIWORA | Radiology Reference Article |

Intraneural abnormalities included edema, hemorrhage, contusion, and partial or complete transection. Only the presence of other post-traumatic lesions at the same level may suggest possible diagnosis [ 1314 ].

This phenomenon was primarily seen in children but was reported in adults as well. Regardless of the immobilization type, all SCIWORA patients are advised to refrain from any physical activities that may increase the risk of reinjury for approximately six months sciwoea 21 ].

Despite insufficient evidence, this may indicate the severity of the injury mechanism required to sviwora SCIWORA in the biomechanically more stable thoracic spine. The relationship of developmental narrowing of the cervical spinal canal to reversible and irreversible injury of the cervical spinal cord in football players. The mainstay of treatment in patients with SCIWORA is nonoperative management including steroid therapy, immobilization, and avoidance of activities that may increase the risk of exacerbation or recurrent injury.


Diagnostic Evaluation After the initial management in the field, diagnostic evaluation of patients with presumed SCI should start with a detailed history which can be possibly taken from sciwira to determine the mechanism of injury [ 5 ].

Of these, 71 patients Polish Journal of Radiology. Van Buul and F. This finding is supported by the fact that the fulcrum of movement is at the upper levels of the cervical spine between C2 and C4 in younger children and shifts to lower levels C5-C6 in adolescents and adults [ 1415 ].

There were no bony abnormalities on x-rays or CT scans. Because of these observations, one should consider radiographs of the entire spinal column when any traumatic spinal injury is identified in a child, SCIWORA or otherwise.

Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children–the SCIWORA syndrome.

If normal physiological motion of the spinal column can potentiate spinal cord injury SCIWORA in these patients when there is no malalignment, subluxation, or lesion causing cord compression, then immobilization may be warranted in these patients. It is unclear, however, what role immobilization plays in this population once dynamic radiographs have confirmed the absence of instability.

Arrows indicate the location of spinal cord compression: Magnetic resonance imaging correlation in pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality. Autopsy photographs of a year-old man found dead near his bicycle. The guidelines author sciworaa of the Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Congress of Neurological Surgeons have previously produced a medical evidence-based guideline on this topic.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. One concern is whether the child with a normal neurological examination and either a history of transient neurological deficit ie, paraparesis or quadriparesis or persisting subjective symptoms ie, numbness or dysesthesias would be a sciwira for the diagnosis of SCIWORA.

In a systematic review, Carroll et al. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI has become a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with SCIWORA because of its superior ability to identify soft tissue lesions such as cord edema, hematomas and transections, and discoligamentous injuries that may not be visualized in plain radiographs and CT.

SCIWORA is a widely recognized form of spinal cord injury, occurring almost exclusively in children, and is characterized by the absence of any radiographically evident fracture, dislocation, or malalignment. Pathophysiology Several mechanisms have been proposed to cause SCIWORA including spinal cord traction injury due to hyperflexion, extrinsic cord damage from hyperextension, and parenchymal cord damage resulting from edema or vascular injury [ sciwota ].

Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) | Neurosurgery | Oxford Academic

The presence of frank hematomyelia or cord disruption is associated with a severe, permanent sciwoea injury. At three-month follow-up, a decision as to whether the patient should have another MRI is made on an individual basis. Related articles in PubMed Suicidal because I don’t feel connected or vice versa?

Didn’t get the message? Pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities: