: Propagandes () by Jacques Ellul and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great. Introduction. Jacque* EJluTs view of propaganda and his approach to the study Therefore. Ellul distinguishes various fonrts of propaganda and calls his book. 13 quotes from Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes: ‘To the extent that propaganda is based on current news, it cannot permit time for thought o.

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Mass society is characterized by uniformity and material life despite differences of environment.

Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes – Wikipedia

In this setting, “the individual caught up in the mass”, the individual’s reactions are easier to provoke and psychic defenses are weakened. It is remarkable how the various presuppositions and aspects of myths complement each other, support each other, mutually defend each other: Individuals without natural organic local groups are defenseless and more likely to be caught up in a social lelul.

He is now obliged to believe in that propaganda because of his past action. Society must contain elements of both an individualist society and a mass society.

Propaganda Quotes

This acts as a disguise that must be there to hide what is really happening behind the scenes in the government. Political Propaganda involves techniques of influence employed by a government, a party, an administration, or a pressure group with the intention of changing the behavior of the public.

And in so building it must always go in the same direction as society; it can only reinforce society. Modern propaganda could not exist without the mass media or modern means of transportation which permit crowds of diverse individuals from all over to assemble easily and frequently. This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor’s personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic.

The myth expresses the deep inclinations of a society. From then on he has enemies. Participation can be active or passive: Citizens are aware that political decisions affect everybody propagandez governments cannot govern without the support, presence, pressure, or knowledge of the people. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. With each of these events propaganda developed further, increased in depth, discovered new methods. That summer as Merton prepared for a lecture to his novices on technology[7], he drew heavily from his original notes on Jacquee Technological Society compiled for the peacemakers retreat two years earlier.


Once a mass society is created, public opinion will begin to play a role to help individuals form their own personal opinion.

Propaganda is forced to build on those presuppositions and to express these myths, for without them nobody would listen to it. Propaganda must be a reflection of the fundamental structures of society to be successful and not contradictory of existing opinions. Being that the people in charge can’t escape the people, bait must be presented to them.

All this is debatable, for the important thing is not to be able to read, but to understand what one reads, to reflect on and judge what one reads. Massignon, a Frenchman like Ellul, was a Catholic mystic and scholar of Islam propahandes also served as a mentor of sorts for Merton. As early asEdward Bernays recognized propaganda as a modern instrument to produce productive ends and “help bring order out of chaos”. Schools are a primary mechanism for integrating the individual into the way of life.

Information is most effective when it is objective and broad because it creates a general picture. Integration propaganda, on the other hand, is a more subtle form that aims to reinforce cultural norms.

In this book Ellul but argued that modern propaganda was intended to spark action towards a desired response by developing learned attitudes, and that it drew from propagades analyses of psychology and sociology. Such a man never stops to investigate any one point, any more than he will tie together a series of news events. People are willing and likely to accept propaganda that allows them to artificially satisfy their desire to propaganeds an opinion by elkul their incompetence.

It momentarily subverts the habits, customs, and beliefs that were obstacles to making great leap forward by addressing the internal elements in each of us. He is what one calls committed – which is certainly what the Communist party anticipates, for example, and what the Nazis accomplished. He is obliged to receive from it his justification and authority, without propagndes his action will seem to him absurd or unjust, which would be intolerable.

Propaganda must also attach itself to the pre-existing fundamental currents of the society it seeks to influence. Though Merton included several comments on technology that year in his book Conjectures of a Guilty Bystanderhe cited Lewis Mumford on the topic without referencing Ellul. The individual can no longer exercise his own judgment and elpul honed into what propaganda tells him. Propaganda veils the truth with falsehoods even though lying is generally to be avoided.


Individuals want to be informed and to participate in the decisions of the state. Propaganda must be total in that utilizes all forms of media to draw the individual into the net of propaganda.

Ellul and Merton

As an isolated unit, the individual is of no interest to the propagandist unless he is reduced to an average. But to talk about critical faculties and discernment is to talk about something far above primary education and to consider a very small minority. The individual is led unfailingly to its adherence by talking about the dialectic until the individual discovers the answer that was set up unconsciously for him to find.

Henry Holt and Company, New York. Propaganda, as it is traditionally known, implies an attempt to spread an ideology through the mass media of communication in order to lead the public to a desired action. The more stereotypes in a culture, the easier it is to form public opinion, and the more an individual participates in that culture, the more susceptible he becomes to the manipulation of these symbols.

Just because the term propaganda cannot be defined with any degree of precision does not mean that attempts to define it should be abandoned. Individuals are faced with decisions which require a range of information that the individual does not and cannot have without propaganda. Propaganda thrives off of what individuals have in common with others to develop patterns of behavior and modify cultural opinions.

However, as discussed in early chapters Ellul described the masses are incapable of making long-term foreign policy and the government needs to make these decisions in a timely manner. The best defense here is to forget the preceding event. In general, propaganda is a set of methods employed by an organized group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through psychological manipulations and incorporated into an organization.

Since democracy depends on public opinion, it is clear that propaganda must be involved. This type of propaganda changes the public opinion of an opposing regime so that it can be in favor of their regime.